In a small bowl, combine the brown sugar, cayenne pepper, garlic powder, paprika, salt, and some freshly cracked pepper (10-15 cranks of a pepper mill).
Place the chicken thighs on a cutting board and pat dry with a paper towel. Sprinkle the brown sugar mixture over the chicken, coating both sides liberally.
Heat a large skillet over medium. Once hot, add the olive oil and swirl to coat. Add the coated chicken and cook for about 5-7 minutes on each side, or until cooked through and the brown sugar has turned into a deep brown glaze. Serve hot.